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Conference Papers
A Study on the Trade Structure of Sino - Korea Trade
发布时间2017-03-16 20:51:00

At the end of the 20th century, the global economy entered a period of rapid development, many regional trade appeared, China and South Korea's trade has also been rapid development. 1992 China and South Korea to establish friendly relations, after which the total trade between the two countries are growing year by year, China and South Korea become each other's major trading partners. China has become the most South Korea, South Korea is also China's trading partners ranked third in the ranking. However, because of the low level of technology in China and the reasons for the factor endowment, there are many problems in the structure of trade goods between China and South Korea. Which China's export product growth potential, added value and technical content and so on are relatively weak, this will inevitably seriously affect the healthy development of China and South Korea's trade. To this end, China should make full use of the opportunities brought by East Asian economic integration, from improving the technological content and added value of Chinese products, strengthen cooperation in the fields of science and technology between China and South Korea, strengthen the support of the governments of the two governments, and carry out strategic trade Cooperation and other aspects of the adjustment of the Korean trade structure of goods.

Key words commodity trade structure added value East Asia economic integration


I. Introduction

(A) the background and significance of the study


1, research background


At the end of the 20th century, the emergence of regional economic integration brought new changes to the development of the whole economy. And regional economic cooperation is an effective way to promote national economic development and improve international status. With the development of East Asian economy, the trade response in the region has become the basic area of regional economic cooperation. China and South Korea as an influential country in East Asia, economic and trade cooperation between the two countries to promote economic integration in East Asia has an important role.

China and South Korea are East Asian countries, geographically similar, historical and cultural background similar to the different levels of economic development, complementarity. Before and after the establishment of diplomatic relations between China and South Korea, there was no official direct trade between the two countries before the establishment of diplomatic relations. There was only a small amount of indirect trade between the two countries. Since 1992, the two countries have established diplomatic relations and bilateral trade has developed rapidly. According to customs statistics, South Korea exported 112.16 billion US dollars to China in 2008, 73.95 billion US dollars from China and bilateral trade volume reached 1861.1008. In 2009, the total bilateral trade volume declined due to the impact of the financial crisis. After the economic recovery, in 2010 exceeded 200 billion US dollars, up to 2071.7 billion US dollars. The total trade volume between China and Korea in 2011 was US $ 246.53 billion. Overall, China and South Korea trade has maintained this rapid growth.


2, research significance


At present, China's trade development is mainly in the prime cost advantage in this area has a great advantage, relatively speaking, low trade structure, in the trend of East Asian economic integration, East Asian countries are concentrating on strengthening economic cooperation with other countries, To seek the rapid and stable development of their economies.

China and South Korea are the main forces of East Asian economic integration, while China and South Korea trade in its foreign trade have an important position since 1992, China and South Korea since the establishment of diplomatic relations, the two countries have made cooperation in various fields rapid development. China and South Korea soon became a big trading partner with each other.

However, in the process of the development of Sino-Korean trade, the problems in the trade structure of China and South Korea are becoming more and more prominent. This is extremely unfavorable to the development of trade between China and South Korea. Scholars at home and abroad are paying more and more attention to this issue. Only from the Sino-Korea trade structure of goods analysis, summed up the problem, summed up the characteristics of Sino-Korean trade structure of goods in order to fundamentally make the Sino-Korean trade structure of goods optimized, the only way to Sino-Korea trade in goods trade Continue to develop.


(B) literature review


1, China and South Korea trade status of the study


Ma Xiaohui (2007) has developed a trade imbalance that has affected the healthy and stable development of Sino-Korea trade relations and suggested that both sides should speed up the adjustment of commodity trade structure.

Ma Huanhuan (2013) analyzed the trade deficit between China and South Korea from 1992 to 2012. Because of the differences in the industrial structure between China and South Korea, the trade structure of the two countries was different, so that the trade deficit between China and South Korea.

Based on the view of the above scholars, there is a serious problem in the trade imbalance between China and South Korea. One of the main reasons for this serious problem is that there is a problem in the import and export commodity structure of Sino-Korea trade. Korean trade relations can be healthy development of China and South Korea should speed up the adjustment of commodity trade structure.


2, China and South Korea commodity trade structure of the problem


Chen Heng and Liu Jia (2008) that the Sino-Korean commodity trade commodity structure there are many problems that China's exports to South Korea's low technological content, low added value, South Korea has trade barriers to China and other serious problems.

Luo Shuanglin, Cao Qiuju and Deng Yanping (2007) in-depth study of Sino-Korea trade development pointed out that in order to hinder the Chinese goods into its market, reduce the Chinese market share of its products, for China's more advantageous products and some labor-intensive products, the use of a lot of protection Measures, such as anti-dumping and safeguard measures, in addition to technical trade and intellectual property protection on the establishment of many trade barriers.

The above-mentioned view shows that China and South Korea commodity trade commodity structure has many problems, that China's exports to South Korea's low technological content of products, low added value, South Korea has trade barriers to China, China and South Korea's service trade has a strong vertical division of labor characteristics and There is a level of intra-industry trade is relatively low level of trade structure.


3, China and South Korea commodity trade structure unreasonable deep-seated reasons


(2007) in-depth study of Sino-Korea trade development pointed out that China and South Korea's trade structure is unreasonable one of the reasons, mainly in order to hinder the Chinese goods into China's market, to reduce China's market share of goods, for China more Advantages of products and some labor-intensive products, the use of a lot of protective measures, such as anti-dumping and safeguard measures, in addition to technical trade and intellectual property protection on the establishment of many trade barriers, resulting in a variety of trade friction.

Ma Chang'e (2011) argues that the difference in market capacity between China and South Korea is obvious. In the world chain, the differences in trade policy between the two countries, such as the continuous decline of China's tariff level, have expanded Korea's exports to China. South Korea's more trade restrictions policy makes it difficult for Chinese goods to enter the Korean market and so on.

From the above point of view can be seen that many domestic scholars believe that trade in China and South Korea trade structure is unreasonable mainly due to China and South Korea on behalf of capital and labor-intensive industrial products with fierce trade competition, in order to hinder the Chinese goods into its market, Reduce the Chinese market share of its products, for China's more advantageous products and some labor-intensive products, the use of a lot of protective measures, such as anti-dumping and safeguard measures. In fact, the trade in trade between China and South Korea is not only a trade policy, but also the reasons for the economic level, factor endowment and mutual investment of the two countries.


The Present Situation of Sino - Korea Trade and the Development of Commodity Structure


(A) the status quo of Sino-Korean trade


With the increasingly close trade between China and South Korea, China and South Korea's import and export trade has expanded year by year, at present, South Korea is my third largest trading partner, the third largest export target countries and the second largest source of imports , While China has become South Korea's largest trading partner, export targets and import countries.


1, China and South Korea trade development status quo


Since the establishment of diplomatic relations between China and South Korea in 1992, the total trade volume between China and South Korea has been widening (see Table 2.1), and the total trade volume of US $ 5 billion in 1992 was only US $ 25 billion in 1999. After entering the 21st century, the economic and trade between China and South Korea entered a period of rapid development. The total bilateral trade volume between China and Korea reached 345 in 2000, and exceeded US $ 90 billion in 2004. The total import and export growth rate of China and South Korea exceeded 40% Korea's bilateral trade volume has exceeded 150 billion US dollars, South Korea has become China's fourth largest source of imports, the sixth largest trade partner and the sixth largest export market. 2008 and 2009 due to the financial crisis led to the total annual trade and the European debt crisis and the global economic downturn, but after recovery, the total bilateral trade between China and South Korea in 2010 exceeded 200 billion US dollars in 2012 to 211.5 billion US dollars, Trade volume to achieve a 42-fold growth, as of 2012, China has for nine consecutive years to become South Korea's largest trading partner, for 10 years to become South Korea's largest export market, for six consecutive years to become South Korea's largest importer. According to South Korea statistics, China's share in the Korean import market rose from 14.8% in 2005 to 16.8% in 2010, down to 16.5% in 2011. Only ten years time, bilateral economic relations between China and South Korea can achieve such a high level in quantity and quality, which is rare even in the international arena. Before and after the establishment of diplomatic relations between the two countries, bilateral trade situation is different. Before the establishment of diplomatic relations, China and South Korea did not have official direct trade, some only indirect trade, and trade is very small. Since the establishment of diplomatic relations between China and South Korea in 1992, bilateral trade has been advancing by leaps and bounds, and the total trade volume has increased rapidly. Now China and South Korea have already made major trading partners in China.


Since the establishment of diplomatic relations between China and South Korea in 1992, there has been a deficit in bilateral trade between China and South Korea. China-Korea trade is not balanced and the trend is becoming more and more serious (see Figure 2). By 2012, the Chinese trade deficit totaled 555.91 billion The dollar. It can be seen from the figure that since the trade deficit between China and South Korea has expanded rapidly since 2001, the problem of unreasonable trade structure between China and South Korea has become more and more prominent.


2, East Asian economic integration and Sino-Korean trade


In the 1980s, the sustained and rapid development of East Asian economy promoted the development of East Asian economic integration and globalization, and also led to the transformation of the whole regional economy. In order to further develop the economy of the whole region, the countries of East Asia will further strengthen cooperation among countries and decide to establish a unified free trade zone - China-ASEAN Free Trade Area, which will be run in January 2010. In May the same year, the leaders of China, Japan and ROK held the third meeting in Korea, jointly issued the "2020 China-Japan-Korea Cooperation Outlook" document, and launched a joint research between China, Japan and South Korea, China, Japan and South Korea leaders , The three parties will be united and strive to complete by 2012. The leaders of China, Japan and ROK have fully elaborated on the desire to expand the trade volume of the three countries by 2020. They demanded that the trade facilitation should be strengthened and the trade environment of the three countries should be improved. For the financial cooperation, cooperation and cooperation in science and technology, Energy, energy efficiency, resources and other areas of the policy cooperation and consultation. November 2012 China, Japan and South Korea leaders of the free trade area of the various issues of exchange of views and a new round of negotiations. March 26-28, 2013, China, Japan and South Korea FTA's first round of negotiations held in Seoul, South Korea, the Chinese chief negotiator, the Chinese Minister of Commerce Assistant Yu Jihua led a delegation to attend. The three parties discussed the mechanism of the FTA, the negotiation area and the negotiation mode.

The development of the economy in East Asia is closely linked to the development of trade between China and South Korea. It not only affects the fundamental interests of the two economies, but also affects the stable development of trade between the two countries. East Asian economic integration not only provides a peaceful and stable environment for China's economic development, but also provides China with foreign funds and advanced technology to help optimize China's trade commodity structure and improve China's international status. For South Korea, through regional economic integration and cooperation can establish a peaceful and stable security structure, South Korea can also expand regional trade through regional economic cooperation, attract foreign investment, promote its rapid and stable economic development.


(2) Overview of Sino-Korea Trade Structure of Commodities


According to the development of China and South Korea in recent years, we can see that the commodity trade structure of the two countries has been deteriorating constantly, and there is a great deviation, and the development of the deformity is weakening while the competition is strengthened. Although the import and export products of China and South Korea are imported and exported within the industry, the vertical division of labor based on comparative advantage is still the basic characteristic of bilateral trade structure between China and South Korea.

South Korea's major exports to China are capital-intensive products. In recent years, China Customs statistics, South Korea's exports to China's products mainly concentrated in the capital-intensive products such as mechanical and electrical products, machinery and equipment, organic chemicals, plastics and their products, optical and medical equipment products, these products in the total export In the proportion of the basic unchanged, while the higher technical content of the proportion of electronic products increased year by year, including rapid growth of semiconductor and computer. Import labor-intensive steel and machinery and equipment, ceramics, glass, agriculture, forestry and fishery by-products, beverages, tobacco and mineral raw materials and other products. Although the two countries in the fossil fuel products, although there are trade, but there are still differences between each other, such as South Korea in order to import coal and coal products from China, China will export oil and from the asphalt minerals Oil and its products.


Third, China and South Korea commodity trade structure of the problem


(A) China and South Korea between the import and export products, technical content and added value gap


Since the implementation of the reform and opening up in 1978, China began to export-oriented war, China's foreign trade has been a long-term development, China soon in the world of forest occupies a place, become the most developing countries, but because China started relatively late, So China's exports after a long process from the primary products and semi-finished products to the development of industrial products, but even so exports of labor-intensive products, foreign trade pattern has not changed much. For example, China's exports to South Korea's electromechanical products, although already the total number of exports ranked first, but the total exports of light industrial products still account for a large proportion, in other words, China and South Korea's export trade structure is not Substantive optimization. From South Korea's advanced level of productivity development and economic development, determines the Korean exports to China's products will be high value-added and capital technology-intensive products, from Table 3.1 can be seen that such products occupy the South Korea to China Export products of the top three, and the amount is very large. Although South Korea also exports primary minerals to China, it is primarily used as an import raw material to promote the development of its economy and to prepare for the production and export of high value-added products.

According to Table 3.2, China exports to South Korea in the clothing-related knitting, fur, pendant, steel and steel products occupy a very high proportion of these products are mainly some primary products, technical content and added value is relatively low, mainly because of China's productivity development level and the degree of economic development is more backward caused. Although the high energy consumption of primary products on the role of economic development is huge, its side effects are equally serious, the formation of a serious trade deficit between China and South Korea. In 2012, for example, the total trade deficit between China and South Korea is as high as US $ 53.5 billion. There are significant differences in the technical differences between the two countries. The surplus products are mainly labor-intensive products (such as ceramics, glass, agriculture and forestry fishery By-products, beverages, tobacco, and product 7, etc.), while the deficit products are mainly capital-intensive products and technology-intensive products (such as Table 3.2 in the 1,2,3,5,6 products, etc. This reflects the At present, China and South Korea's major commodity trade structure, that is, China's exports to South Korea labor-intensive products, and South Korea to China's exports of capital-intensive and technology-based products unhealthy commodity trade structure.


 
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