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In the enterprise supply chain management and international trade financing
发布时间2017-04-03 16:08:00

1 enterprise supply chain and supply chain management

Supply Chain Management (Supply Chain Management) in recent years with the global manufacturing (Global Manufacturing) in the enterprise resource planning (ERP) based on the development of management methods. Enterprise supply chain management, is the supply chain in the information flow, logistics and capital flow design, planning and control, unified integration of the manufacturing process, inventory systems and suppliers of data, supply, demand, raw material procurement, market , Production, inventory, orders, distribution and other management. The purpose of enterprise supply chain management is to increase the predictability of the market, reduce the inventory, improve the delivery capacity; reduce the work cycle, improve productivity, reduce supply chain costs, reduce overall procurement costs, shorten the production cycle, speed up market response Speed, to ensure that the right time in the right time to the right product / service to the right place to ensure customer satisfaction to the center manufacturers as the core, the industry upstream raw materials and spare parts suppliers, industrial downstream distributors, logistics operators, Service providers and the combination of existing banks as a whole, so as to effectively allocate resources, improve work efficiency, improve the market response to the market and the final customer demand, enhance competitiveness and improve the efficiency of the supply chain members and efficiency.

Enterprise supply chain management can be divided into the following parts:

Program part: The enterprise sets a strategy to manage all the resources to meet the customer's demand for the products produced. The purpose of this section is to establish a series of ways to monitor the supply chain so that it can deliver high quality and high value products or services to customers effectively and cost effectively.

Purchasing part: This part of the task is to select the goods and services for the enterprise products and services suppliers, and suppliers to establish a set of pricing, distribution and payment process, including delivery, check the bill, transfer the goods to The manufacturing department of the enterprise and approve the payment to the supplier. In this part, the enterprise has to develop a management process for the goods and services provided by the supplier, to monitor it, and to improve the problem.

Manufacturing section: This section refers to the activities required to arrange for production, testing, packaging and preparation for delivery. In this section, the enterprise to measure the supply chain quality level, product output and the production efficiency of workers and so on.

Distribution part: that is what we usually call the "logistics" part of this part of the work to do is to adjust the user's order receipt, the establishment of the warehouse network, send delivery and delivery of goods to the hands of customers, the establishment of goods pricing system, The

Return part: refers to the establishment of the network to receive customers to return the defective and excess products, and customers in the application of product problems to provide support, that is, the supply chain in the problem processing part.

Supply chain management is an effective way for enterprises to adapt to the increasingly fierce global competition. Supply chain management can bring the following benefits for enterprises:

(1) reduce the supply chain links in the transaction costs, shorten the trading hours.

So that suppliers at any time to grasp the inventory of enterprises, according to the demand for timely production, thereby reducing the level of enterprise inventory.

(3) to facilitate the timely acquisition of suppliers and procurement information, reduce procurement management personnel, reduce procurement costs;

(4) to facilitate enterprises to accurately and timely predict market changes, according to market demand to produce the necessary products, reduce production time.

2 International trade finance and the development of small and medium-sized enterprises

International trade financing refers to the use of structured short-term financing instruments, import and export companies to choose international settlement based on commodity trading, inventory, prepayments, accounts receivable and other assets to the international settlement of the relevant Link to provide financial intermediation to accelerate the cash flow of enterprises to solve corporate accounts receivable or external payments faced by the financial difficulties. International trade financing can change the financial flow of enterprises, affecting corporate credit investigation, collection of accounts, credit guarantees and other financial management. International trade financing can serve both markets at the same time,

So that foreign trade enterprises internal and external business capital chain to achieve docking.

With the deepening of China's economic system reform and the development of market economy, small and medium-sized enterprises play an increasingly important role in the national economy. After the state abolished the monopoly of the right to operate the foreign trade in the public sector, more and more small and medium-sized enterprises gained the right to operate foreign trade and became a force in the field of foreign trade. However, in the past period of time, although the small and medium enterprises in the mode of operation and market development is more flexible, but by the scale of operation and the size of their own funds, often encountered in the development of funding constraints caused by the main reasons for this problem Yes:

(1) Banks for financial security considerations, the financing of small and medium enterprises harsh conditions: the large number of small and medium enterprises in China, but the quality varies greatly.

Banks for the sake of profit maximization, the enthusiasm of small and medium enterprises loans is not high. Compared to large enterprises, most small and medium enterprises on the credit demand is small, the number of times, the higher the opportunity cost of loans.

(3) The application of financial products, credit evaluation system and guarantee system for the financing of small and medium-sized enterprises is generally lacking. Our traditional financial policy and financing system is designed and implemented mainly by state-owned enterprises, especially large state-owned enterprises. Financial application of financial products, credit evaluation system and guarantee system. If the bank refers to the financial indicators for large enterprises standards, then many financing needs of SMEs will not meet the requirements, companies will not be able to get loans.

SME financing often has the characteristics of small amount, many times and fast turnover, while trade finance is characterized by high liquidity, short-term and repeatability, emphasizing the operation and control of capital flow and logistics, dilute financial analysis and access Control, is conducive to dynamic grasp of the risk, to avoid the characteristics of small and medium enterprises operating instability, relative to the ordinary working capital loans, international trade financing risk, bank access threshold, approval process speed and other advantages:

(1) In the process of bank's traditional working capital loan, the bank should scrutinize the scale, net assets, debt ratio, profitability and guarantee mode of the enterprise. The small and medium-sized enterprises often fail to reach the bank standard because the financial indicators are not Unable to finance. In the process of international trade financing, the bank focuses on the real background of the single trade and the historical credibility of the import and export enterprises, without the use of the traditional evaluation system. Banks through the closed operation of funds, by ensuring that each real business after the return of funds to control the risk. Small and medium-sized enterprises that are unable to obtain financing loans due to financial standards can not obtain the loans through the single transaction of real trade, and then through the rolling cycle to obtain the funds needed for enterprise development, to a certain extent, to solve the financing difficult.

In the traditional working capital loan model, the bank needs to make a rigorous investigation on the basic situation, financial indicators, development prospects, financing situation, credit record, collateral or collateral of the loan enterprise, and the approval process is long The Small and medium enterprises because of the capital chain is more tense, so the timeliness of financing requirements are strong, often occur after the bank approval of the enterprise has no need to finance the situation. In the mode of international trade finance, banks can integrate and simplify the process of international trade financing. On the basis of investigating the background of enterprise single trade and the record of enterprise history and credit, the bank can lend and the approval process is relatively simple and can meet the timeliness of financing of small and medium-sized enterprises Requirements, so that enterprises can more quickly get the necessary funds.

(3) SME liquidity loans with high risk, high cost, low income characteristics, small and medium enterprises due to tight capital chain, it is easy to misappropriation of mobile loans, the bank to increase the risk. In the mode of international trade financing, the bank focuses on the authenticity of the business background and the continuity of the trade business. By reviewing the enterprise's credit history record, the counterparty, the customer's default cost, the combination of financial instruments, the bank's post-loan management and operation Procedures and other circumstances to determine the business in the trade process generated by the sales revenue, in order to determine the international trade financing of the first source of repayment, by the trade

Deduct the proportion of its own funds to determine the amount of financing, the period will be limited to match the trade cycle. In general, funds will not be misappropriated, can effectively reduce the risk of banks. (4) China's banking industry is still in the initial stage of business, the future development of a lot of space. As a result of direct access to bank loans more difficult, small and medium enterprises generally demand for trade financing. International settlement as a pillar of the middle bank business, you can expand the bank's revenue sources; In addition, banks can import letters of credit, import bills, export bills, export discount, factoring business, open bank acceptance Bills and other intermediary business directly charge a fee, the expansion of intermediary business income.

3 enterprise supply chain management and international trade

Easy to finance

Since the 1990s, the growth rate of international trade has been higher than the growth of global production. China's manufacturing industry-based small and medium-sized enterprises developed rapidly. According to the statistics, the number of small and medium-sized enterprises currently registered in China is more than 10 million, accounting for 99% of the total number of enterprises, small and medium enterprises to create import and export trade accounted for more than 60%. However, due to the weak position in the supply chain, with the strong strength of the upstream suppliers and downstream dealers in the negotiation process, SMEs have to accept harsh terms of trade, resulting in the normal cash flow turnover difficulties, combined with small Corporate credit rating is generally low, can not provide the bank's traditional trade financing credit or credit guarantee required, so often encountered cash flow problems. According to the annual "Asian Business Watch" report released by UPS, more than 23% of SMEs in China suffered from cash flow in 2005, while at the same time, there were nearly 11 trillion yuan of inventory and accounts receivable The Enterprises encounter this situation is actually like holding gold rice bowl to eat, where the gold rice bowl is to make business a lot of raw materials, inventory, accounts receivable and other movable property.

On the other hand, the international trade market has obvious characteristics of the buyer's market: the reduction of the single trade volume, the increase of the credit trade and the extension of the account period. The market competition has also changed from the competition between the single customer and the supply chain and the supply chain competition. The interconnected enterprises within the same supply chain are interdependent, and the overall operation and management costs of the supply chain are affected by the operational capacity and efficiency of the overall funding of the supply chain, including the core enterprises and the disadvantaged SMEs. In this context, under the international trade supply chain financing services came into being, the object of international trade financing from large enterprises to supply chain in the small and medium enterprises. Banks in accordance with the different characteristics of import and export supply chain and import and export enterprises in the supply chain in different aspects of the demand for enterprises to provide import supply chain financing services and export supply chain financing services, respectively, enterprises in the import license, import payment, export procurement , The recovery of accounts and other aspects of the supply chain financing problems so that SMEs no longer need to worry about the issue of import and export financing. The supply chain financing market under international trade has a great demand and has great potential for development.

The so-called supply chain financing is the bank in the grasp of the entire supply chain situation under the premise of the core business of the upstream and downstream of small and medium enterprises to provide financing, from this perspective, the supply chain financing can actually be said for small and medium enterprises financial services The

Take the Bank of China's "easy to reach" as an example, "Easy to reach" is a supply chain financing, it is in credit transactions for the payment of the transaction, the buyer signed a written document to confirm the basic transactions and accounts payable without controversy , To ensure that the payment of obligations due to fulfill the circumstances, the bank in the occupation of the amount of credit under the premise of the buyer, no longer occupy the seller credit line for the seller to provide trade finance. "Easy to reach" to take full advantage of the core business as the amount of the buyer's resources for the surrounding SME sellers to provide convenient financing services, thereby enhancing the overall competitiveness of the supply chain strength.

Compared with the traditional trade financing, the supply chain financing service under the international trade, for enterprises in the import and export trade because it can not provide fixed asset mortgage, credit guarantee or credit line financing difficulties, do not force enterprises to provide fixed assets mortgage or guarantee, But to increase the pledge of goods or accounts receivable transfer as a credit condition to control the logistics and accounts receivable as a means of risk control for small and medium enterprises to provide supply chain financing services. In the bank credit review, is no longer simply emphasize the financial statements of enterprises, business transactions and partners, enterprises in which the industrial chain is stable and the target enterprise market position and supply chain management level to become the focus of the bank. Operating a more stable, real trade background, cargo flow or receivables control of the enterprise to become a bank international trade financing business of good customer groups.

By providing supply chain financing under international trade, banks can finance the various aspects of the operation of the enterprise to meet the different needs of the enterprise supply chain. The bank's "supply chain financing" from the core business to determine its entire supply chain, the flexible use of financial products and services, on the one hand, in a relatively weak upstream and downstream supporting small and medium enterprises to support financial supply to solve the problem of supply chain imbalance; , The bank credit into the upstream and downstream enterprises buying and selling behavior, enhance its commercial credit, improve its bargaining position, so that the supply chain members to negotiate more equitably and gradually establish long-term strategic cooperative relationship. Enterprises only need to pay a small margin, you can use the international trade under the supply chain financing services to obtain full financial support. At the same time through this leveraged operating effect, enterprises can quickly expand the scale of import and export, enhance the supply chain in the competitive strength and the competitiveness of the entire supply chain.

Under the international trade, the supply chain financing scheme can improve the enterprise cash flow by revitalizing the enterprise movable property and accounts receivable, and enhance the competitiveness of the enterprise and expand the scale of the import and export of the enterprise. In addition, supply chain financing can solve the problem of financing difficulties in different supply chain links. Banks provide "tailor-made" new types of products and package services to reduce the average financing cost of the supply chain by providing financing needs for different supply chain links. Banks can also delay payment of import payments or early recovery of export payments

, To help enterprises effectively guard against the appreciation of the RMB exchange rate risk. In the process of financing the international trade supply chain, the banks around the enterprise supply chain, combined with trade settlement, make full use of bank credit, commercial credit and property rights and other credit value-added tools, design multi-level, multi-angle trade finance portfolio Financing the overall solution to meet the different needs of enterprises.

In the traditional mode of international trade financing, the demand for trade finance is transaction payment and cash flow control. In the supply chain financing model, business needs have been developed to the capital utilization and financial management value-added features. Therefore, the banks need to pay attention to the integration of the international trade supply chain and the management of the value chain. Through the management and control of cash flow, logistics, information flow, integration of funds, commodities and information in the trade links, the formation of new ideas of supply chain financing, Chain to form a complete trade finance solution.

Commercial banks are important partners in enterprise supply chain management. Commercial banks through the supply chain to provide funding and billing support to help enterprises to capital flow, information flow management, enterprise logistics management to improve and improve. Supply chain financing can solve the problem of financing small and medium enterprises, but also enhance the quality of the supply chain as a whole and solid

Level, but also cultivate a number of high-quality enterprises in the growth period, change the bank blindly rely on large customer situation; the same time by the bank to grasp the supply chain business information to truly understand the business situation, so as to more in-depth development of personalized service program , And ultimately the realization of financial capital and industrial economy, to build banks, enterprises and commodity supply chain benign interaction of industrial ecology, to achieve the bank and supply chain members of the multi-win.


 
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